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Officials from the Department of Labor recently told lawmakers in the U.S. Virgin Islands that understaffing in the DOL has prevented the department from pursuing legal action against employers who have failed to make their unemployment insurance payments. These delayed and missing payments have, in turn, delayed the payment of benefits to newly unemployed citizens.

The DOL representatives revealed this information during a hearing of the Legislature of the Virgin Islands’ Committee on Workforce Development, Consumer Affairs and Culture. At the hearing, the Department of Licensing and Consumer of Affairs, the Department of Tourism and the Virgin Islands Carnival Committee also all testified.

A look at the issue

Elton George, who is the director of the Unemployment Insurance Division, said that when employers do not make their required unemployment insurance payments, the Virgin Islands Department of Labor then begins garnishing the claimant’s financial records to determine the amount of the unemployment check. However, understaffing at the Department of Labor has led to none of the typical legal action being taken against delinquent companies. According to George, the delay has been made even worse by a larger than usual number of unemployment claims coming into the UID.

Virgin Islands lawmakers were not satisfied with the explanation. According to Senator Jean Forde, unemployment has increased dramatically in the wake of the hurricanes that hit the Territory last fall. As such, the Department of Labor should not have understaffing problems, especially considering the vacancies are fully funded. The positions must be filled to allow the Department to process unemployment benefits to help the people in need throughout the territory.

Virgin Islands media became aware of the issue when former employees of the Schneider Regional Center and Juan F. Luis Hospital told reporters they had not received their promised unemployment benefits since losing their jobs. Resulting investigations revealed widespread issues throughout the Virgin Islands with people not receiving the unemployment benefits they are owed.

Considering the harsh living conditions Virgin Islanders have had to deal with since Hurricanes Irma and Maria hit the Territory, it is even more important than it might typically be for citizens to get these benefits in a timely manner so they can afford basic living necessities, not to mention ongoing repairs to their properties.

According to Senator Nereida Rivera O’Reilly, some people who have lodged complaints with the government have not received any unemployment checks since October 2017—that’s months’ worth of missing payments caused by dysfunction in the government.

This is an issue affecting employers and employees alike. For more information about the state of the Department of Labor and how this issue will affect your business’s long-term planning, contact an attorney in the U.S. Virgin Islands.


Ravinder S. Nagi is a shareholder and Chair of the Labor and Employment Practice Group of BoltNagi Pc, a full service business law firm serving the U.S. Virgin Islands.

In an age when so much happens online, businesses must be willing to commit to digital security to best protect the sensitive data and information of themselves and their customers. In fact, some estimates indicate that the global market for cybersecurity will surpass $80 billion next year, indicating just how important this issue has become.

To help your business start to address this complex issue, the following are a few best practices for protecting sensitive data on your networks.

  • Invest in a dedicated server: Many small businesses use shared servers to host their files. While this can be a cheaper option, it also means that multiple parties may have access to that server. If another website on the server has weak security, your site could be vulnerable, as well. A dedicated server can be worth the extra expense for the peace of mind it provides.
  • Encrypt all your data: You should never keep sensitive information and records unencrypted. If your network is somehow compromised, unencrypted information is an easy target for cyber criminals.
  • Always monitor for malware: Establish programs monitoring your website’s security at all times so you can be alerted instantly to the presence of any malware. As soon as your site has been infected or has the potential to be compromised, you will be able to address the problem before it gets out of control.
  • Keep access restricted: Access to sensitive files containing personal customer information should be on a “need to know” basis only. Keep all files in a single, centralized location, whether they are digital files in one server location or physical files in a filing cabinet in a locked room.
  • Regularly shred paper documents: If you keep physical copies of the information you store online, be sure to properly dispose of it. Shred or burn any sensitive customer data—simply throwing it in the trash or recycling is not good enough.
  • Permanently delete digital files: Simply moving a file to the trash bin on your computer does not wipe it from your files. There are still traces of the file that allow it to be recovered. There are a variety of programs that make it easy to permanently delete these files when you are ready to do so.
  • Always have a response plan ready for a breach: You need to be prepared in the event a breach does occur. This should include isolating the problem, notifying any customers who may have been affected and resolving the situation as soon as possible. You should never attempt to conceal a breach from your customers—be as open and honest as you can be.

Cyber security must be a crucial component of your company’s digital operations. Be sure to consult an information technology professional to establish a plan for your business, and speak with a knowledgeable intellectual property attorney to ensure you are covering all your legal bases.


Tom Bolt is Managing Attorney of BoltNagi, a widely respected and well-established intellectual property law firm serving businesses and organizations throughout the U.S. Virgin Islands.

With all the risks that come with running a small business, it’s critically important for owners and entrepreneurs to have proper insurance coverage to protect against unexpected catastrophes. There are many different forms of commercial insurance available to cover a variety of risks.

Property insurance policies

Property insurance is a category encompassing a variety of insurance policies that cover losses and damages to real or personal property. Examples of these policies include:

  • Debris removal: This covers any costs associated with clearing and removing debris after your business has been damaged by a flood, fire, tornado or other natural disaster. Before you can start rebuilding and repairing your property, you must be able to remove all the debris, making this coverage extremely useful.
  • Builder’s risk: This type of insurance covers buildings during their construction. If, for example, a windstorm takes down part of a building during the construction process, those losses would be covered.
  • Boiler and machinery: Boiler and machinery insurance protects you in the event of an accidental breakdown of equipment, such as boilers and other crucial building machinery. It will cover both property damage and business interruption losses.
  • Business interruption: This type of policy covers losses you suffer because of interruptions to your businesses due to natural disasters or property damage.
  • Crime: Crime insurance covers various property crimes such as vandalism, theft, robbery and burglary of products, money and stock by customers, employees or other parties.

Other forms of insurance

Outside of the property insurance umbrella, there are numerous other forms of insurance coverage that can protect your company. The following are a few examples:

  • Liability insurance: Any damage you cause to third parties is covered under liability insurance. For example, if someone files a personal injury or premises liability claim against you, the cost of resolving and defending that claim would be covered under your policy.
  • Malpractice insurance: Also known as professional liability insurance, this type of policy protects you if your conduct falls below a certain standard of care for your profession, resulting in injuries or losses to another party.
  • Car insurance: Commercial auto insurance covers any company vehicles you have that you use specifically for business purposes.
  • Workers’ compensation insurance: This policy covers you if any of your employees suffer injuries on the job, regardless of whose fault those injury were.

These are just a few of the many forms of commercial insurance available for business owners in the U.S. Virgin Islands. For further guidance on this important, consult an experienced business law attorney.


BoltNagi is a widely respected and established business and corporate law attorney serving clients throughout the U.S. Virgin Islands.

The Legislature of the Virgin Islands recently approved Bill No. 31-0398, a new bill eliminating customs duties in the Territory. These duties generate approximately $12 million every year, but for more than 10 years, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection has taken almost all of it to cover the costs of collecting it. As a result, the duties reached the point where negligible funds actually received by the U.S. Virgin Islands were not worth the trouble and cost focused on collecting them.

The Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands It defines the powers of the Territory and its authority to take up to 6 percent duties on any goods brought from other lands into the Territory. U.S. Customs and Border Protection had taken a portion of the duties to cover its costs, but that portion became significantly larger—almost the entire value of the funds—after the establishment of the federal Department of Homeland Security in 2003.

Previous solutions proved ineffective

In December 2014, the administration of Governor John deJongh, Jr. signed an agreement with the stated goal of resolving this problem. At the time, U.S. Customs and Border Protection agreed it would fund pre-departure clearance for air passengers with federal funds and would work to limit reimbursement from these local customs duties. This agreement also called for greater transparency in reporting the funds that were collected, why they would be retained and how they would be used.

Reports from various U.S. Virgin Islands officials revealed that U.S. Customs and Border Protection had essentially ignored the agreement from the beginning, only remitting $1 million since it was signed. CBP kept more than 90 percent of all the funds earned in customs duties in 2015 and has not returned any 2016 funds, according to US Virgin Islands  Finance Commissioner Valdamier Collens.

The original purpose of the customs duties was to provide additional funding to the territory. With how little money was actually coming back to the US Virgin Islands  under the arrangement, the Government of the Virgin Islands decided to put an end to the practice altogether.

The decision to remove the customs duties was not met without resistance. The St. Croix Chamber of Commerce, for example, did not agree with the changes. In a written statement, it said “the federal government could easily refuse to fund these services and remove the convenience of local customs clearance.” However, the majority of elected officials who passed the amended bill were of the mindset that money going to CBP should come from federal funding—not local money.

The passage of Bill No. 31-0398 could have an impact on businesses throughout the U.S. Virgin Islands. It will be interesting to see if upon approval of Governor Kenneth E. Mapp, it will open up any new opportunities for commerce in the Territory in the years to come.

BoltNagi is a respected and established business and corporate law firm proudly serving clients throughout the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Over the past year, business owners across the United States have been trying to prepare for December 1, when new Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) overtime rule changes were set to go into effect.

However, in late November, Judge Amos Mazzant of the U.S. District Court issued a ruling blocking the implementation of the rule, primarily due to the way it treated white-collar exemptions within the law as it was originally written. According to the court, Congress intended these white-collar exemptions to turn on an employee’s performance and conduct on the job—and not his or her salary. The judge’s ruling essentially states that by doubling the salary threshold for guaranteed overtime pay, the U.S. Department of Labor operated outside its jurisdiction.

It is important to note that this injunction is not permanent and is only meant to delay the rule until the courts can make a “merits determination.” While a permanent injunction is anything but a given at this point, the fact that a federal judge even implemented a preliminary injunction indicates there’s at least a chance the rule could be overturned.

With a change of administration coming to Washington, D.C., this also means President-Elect Donald Trump and his Secretary of Labor will have a lot of say as to whether the Department of Labor will continue to pursue the new overtime regulations under the FLSA.

What impact will this injunction have on businesses?

Small businesses across the country widely supported the ruling by the federal judge, as did the National Association for the Self-Employed. Many believe that had the DOL succeeded in implementing the change, there would have negatively impacted small businesses. Employers suddenly would have been forced to eliminate positions, cut back hours or change salaried workers to hourly.

Some small business owners had asked for specific exemptions to be put into place for smaller organizations so they would better be able to adjust to the changes. Many businesses had not yet shared any information about these rule changes to their employees, which would have meant a large number of workers would have been suddenly surprised by a change in their payment had they not been following along.

One study by ComplyRight revealed that out of nearly 800 owners of very small businesses (under 20 salaried employees) polled, about 82 percent had not shared information with employees regarding the new law. This would suggest employers either did not know how they were going to make the changes within their business or were altogether unaware the changes were coming.

It will be important for businesses owners in the U.S. Virgin Islands and beyond to stay up to date on this issue as it develops. If you have any questions about how the potential overtime rule change could impact your company, meet with a knowledgeable employment law attorney.

Ravinder S. Nagi is Assistant Managing Attorney and Chair of the Litigation Practice Group at BoltNagi, an established and well-respected civil litigation law firm serving individuals, businesses and organizations throughout the U.S. Virgin Islands.

How to Create a Strong IP Indemnity Clause

by Tom Bolt on December 5, 2016

Every product you sell as a manufacturer is subject to the Uniform Commercial Code. This law requires you to guarantee to your customers that your products are free of infringement claims made by other manufacturers.

You may already have customer contracts in place with even more stringent conditions, such as providing legal defenses to customers or reimbursing them for any costs that could be imposed on them as a result of a lawsuit. These costs may quickly mount to staggering figures, so businesses need a way to mitigate the risk. The best means of accomplishing this is negotiating an indemnity clause with your customers.

Indemnity is kind of like an insurance policy — as it protects the “indemnitee” from certain covered losses. A typical agreement involves an “indemnitor” promising to protect the indemnitee from certain losses sustained as a result of a specific act or omission. Practically speaking, this would involve a manufacturer or seller of a product agreeing to cover the buyer for specific losses sustained in third-party patent or trademark infringement claims.

Considerations as you begin the process

Your first step in creating such a clause is to clearly define the parties and the scope of claims your agreement will cover. Typically, the agreement will be between a seller or licensor and a buyer or licensee. You should also consider whether you will cover officers, affiliates, subsidiaries and other parties in the agreement. If your transaction also allows resale or sublicensing, you will need to consider whether those third parties will also be protected (or “indemnified”).

Once you have set all of the ground rules, you should clearly identify each party’s obligations. In most situations, an indemnity provision would indicate that the seller will indemnify, defend and hold the buyer harmless from any losses associated with the covered claims.

There’s a variety of other considerations that could also impact the scope of your coverage and your liability. These include limitations of use, limitations on liability, geographic limitations, multiple indemnitors, pre-existing threats and remedial measures. Your corporate planning attorney can work with you to pinpoint any such factors that could have an impact on your indemnity agreement with your buyer or licensee.

Finally, you should be sure to clearly identify the procedures that must be followed to initiate and resolve any claims that occur. These procedures include the amount of notice time required to file a claim, who is the controlling party, the parties that will have authority to settle, the obligations each party has to cooperate and the amount of time the seller has to provide reimbursement.


Attorney Steven K. Hardy is an Associate in the Corporate, Tax and Estate Planning Practice Group at BoltNagi, PC, a well-established and respected intellectual property law firm serving individuals, businesses and organizations throughout the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Tax deductions are important tools for small business owners that can help them maintain efficient operations while reducing their tax obligations. The more deductions you can take, the less income the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) can tax you on, which means greater savings and more capabilities to grow your company.

The following are a few common tax deductions of which every small business owner in the United States and its territories should be aware:

  • Vehicle expenses: If you regularly use your motor vehicle for business, or your company has its own car, you may deduct a portion of the costs associated with using it. There are two different methods for doing so. The first is the actual expense method, where you track and deduct every business-related expense associated with your vehicle. The other is the standard mileage rate method, in which you deduct a certain amount of money for every mile driven, plus all tolls and parking fees related to business.
  • Traveling: Whenever you travel for business reasons, you may deduct many of the expenses, including plane fare, car costs, taxis, meals, lodging, cleaning clothes, phone calls, tips and taxes. As long as business is the primary purpose of the trip, these costs are deductible. However, if you take family members along, only your expenses may be deducted, as only you are there for business purposes.
  • Business formation expenses: The cost of actually starting up a business are considered capital expenses. You are allowed to deduct $5,000 of these expenses in your first year of business. Remainders must be deducted equally over the course of the next 15 years.
  • Books and professional fees: Business books for your finances are fully deductible as business expenses. You may also typically deduct fees you pay to attorneys, consultants, tax professionals and accountants in the year those expenses were incurred. But if the work they performed was related to future years, those expenses may need to be deducted over the amount of years in which you expect to benefit from those services.
  • Business entertaining: If you pay to entertain current or prospective customers or colleagues, you may deduct 50 percent of those costs, as long as they meet certain stipulations. The entertaining must be directly related to business, with business discussed at the event—or it must be somehow associated with your business. The entertainment must also take place immediately before or after business discussions.
  • Interest: If you finance purchase for your business, all interest incurred is completely tax deductible. This is also true if you take out a personal loan, but use its proceeds for business purposes.

Navigating the complexities of the IRS and U.S. and territorial tax law can be complicated. Be sure to meet with a skilled business planning attorney to make sure you are getting the most out of your deductions.

Attorney Adam Marinelli is an Associate in the Corporate, Tax and Estate Planning Tax Group at BoltNagi, a respected and well-established business law firm serving clients throughout the U.S. Virgin Islands.

When you’ve signed an agreement with another party, one issue you may find yourself dealing with is an “anticipatory” breach of contract, which often means taking action before an actual breach has occurred.

For a little context, a contract could be considered breached or broken if either party unconditionally refuses to perform under the contract as promised. This unconditional refusal is referred to as a “repudiation” of the contract.

Whenever a party indicates through actions or words that it will not live up to its contractual obligations, the other may file a breach of contract claim and seek remedies, typically in the form of monetary payment. This is referred to as “anticipatory breach of contract,” a situation in which the party might not have actually breached the contract yet, but there is reason to believe it will not live up to its end of the deal.

The following are a few of the most common situations in which repudiation may occur:

Express repudiation: Express repudiation is a circumstance in which one party clearly communicates an unconditional refusal to the other party. The repudiating party must outright state that it will not follow through with the deal. An ambiguous refusal—or one qualified with certain conditions—is not enough to be considered express repudiation. It must be completely clear, direct and straightforward, with no other potential meaning.

Actions make it impossible for the party to perform: Actions can sometimes be just as powerful as words when it comes to repudiation. If, for example, someone wanted to start a business and took out loans to do so, but then recklessly ran the business into the ground and incurred numerous other debts in the process, it would be impossible for that person to pay back those original loans. Although this isn’t considered express repudiation, it is clear to the lender, through the actions of the borrower, that the borrower will not live up to his/her contractual agreement because of voluntary actions.

Property that is the subject of the deal was transferred to another party: If the contract in question was in regard to the sale of a certain piece of property, repudiation would occur if one party either transfers or makes a deal to transfer that same property to a different party. For example, if you were under contract to purchase a house, but then discovered the seller sold it to someone else, your contract was repudiated and you may be able to seek legal remedies.

It is, in some circumstances, possible for a party to repudiate the contract, but then retract that repudiation. If the other party did not make a “material change” in his or her standing due to that repudiation, the agreement may return to normal.

Consult an experienced business attorney to learn more about this issue and others related to business contracts.


Attorney Mark Kragel is Senior Counsel with the Litigation Practice Group at BoltNagi, a well-established and widely respected civil litigation law firm proudly serving individuals, businesses and organizations throughout the U.S. Virgin Islands.

What Does it Mean to ‘Pierce the Corporate Veil?

November 17, 2016

One of the main reasons business owners decide to form a company in the structure of a limited liability company (LLC) or corporation is so they can avoid personal liability for business debts, if the business is unable to meet its obligations. However, there are situations in which courts will hold the owners, members or […]

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Key Questions to Avoid When Interviewing Candidates

November 15, 2016

Whenever you interview candidates who are applying for a job opening, you need to figure out exactly what experience, skills and capabilities they bring to the table that would benefit your organization. However, many employers are just as nervous during the interview process as the candidates, and they may end up asking questions that could […]

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